The value chain depicted is the result of the internal research and categorization carried out by IoT Catalan Alliance working group. Following, a brief explanation for each building block:
- Smart device: with the intention of monitoring an asset, all hardware modules and the internal configuration applied to them are grouped together. The data acquisition process is performed by sensors in the upstream and down to actuators the other way around. Circuitry and firmware manage altogether the data flows within the device. Data is transmitted through the network via a gateway that can be an embedded module or an external element.
- Network: different technologies and communication standards, either wired or wireless, allow the connectivity and data transmission between connected devices and data management systems. Connectivity decision depends on solution constraints such as propagation environment, availability of power supply or grid, distance between, gateways, required bandwidth or type of spectrum (licensed, unlicensed).
- Platform: a software element that, through middleware, is responsible for raw data intake and its transformation and curation process. Processed data is usually stored in a long-term relational database for later retrieval. Data fetching occurs through an API when the analytics module requests stored data.
- Analytics: module responsible for analyzing large amounts of data in a reduced timespan. It uses a non-relational or distributed database very flexible and responsive to short-term data storage. It offers a visualization environment as well as data processing capabilities in order to apply the necessary algorithms, resulting from the previous data mining procedure. This information treatment when performed periodically and using specific methodologies makes possible the automatic learning (Machine Learning).
- Service provider: agent in contact with the end user or IoT system beneficiary offering a seamless end to end tailored solution for a particular set of requirements. These solutions can be industry specific or generic, monetized through standalone applications or integrated in a more complex solution. Outcomes from the IoT system can be automatically feed in most existing enterprise repositories such as data lakes, data warehouse, ERP, etc.
- Privacy & security: generally dealt within the first blocks of the value chain (enablers), were data is anonymized and encrypted to prevent data streams from security and privacy leakages, intrusion or manipulation.